1. Community capacity

Capacity for community actors, in particular, leaders of People Organization for Community Development (POCD), community key persons or focal points, and community members need to be further strengthened so that they can assume roles and responsibilities for their own development. It will be a long process. Required capacity include a) basic skills (English language, computer, communication skills…), b) management skills (leading people, managing local organization/tasks, soft skills such as facilitation, negotiation, advocacy…), and c) business and technical skills (micro-business management, production/service skills…).


  1. Community land and housing rights

This relates to the fact that people living in slum areas lack of land/housing security, and they fear of evicting due to state urban development and expansion. Past and current experiences clearly show that urban poor and vulnerable people, especially women, often become victimized of state urban development process. Many dimensions caused them to the situation such as a) their limited understanding and confidence in claiming their rights, b) the corrupted practices of duty bearers that lead to no enforcement of the laws and slow/impossible process for land entitling.

  1. Community incomes for living

Overall, people, especially women, living in urban slum areas of Phnom Penh, experienced a relatively low income that insufficient to support a fair/good living (food, housing, sending children to school etc.). A range of related factors lead them to tis poor living conditions, for examples: lack of occupation and capital that help them to earn better incomes, bad governance (corruption) in public services, lack of proper education for children for skilled employment, health and environmental issue, lack of community basic infrastructure, negative implications of climate changes, issue of drug addition for young people, social security etc.

  1. Gender issue

The underlying women’s norm (Chbab Srey) in Cambodia’s society led to discriminating behaviors against women and girls, and remains a challenge in achieving gender equality. Many efforts have been done up to now, and more need to be done to achieve more qualitative balance in gender aspect, i.e. women in decision-making.